Robert Estrin - piano expert

How to play the Moonlight Sonata with small hands

Useful tips to approach any kind of repertoire requiring chords larger than an octave

In this video Robert Estrin teaches you how to approach any chord over an octave interval. You can apply the very same technique to any kind of piano repertoire!

Released on April 30, 2013

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DISCLAIMER: The views and the opinions expressed in this video are those of the author and do not necessarily reflect the views of Virtual Sheet Music and its employees.

Video Transcription

Hi, I'm Robert Estrin at with a video that is questions and answers from viewers like yourself. This one, somebody with small hands asks, "How do you approach the Beethoven Moonlight Sonata when the reach is greater than your hand can reach?" This is a great question and you asked the right person. I have very small hands. I can reach only a ninth, a tenth just barely around the keys.

As a child growing up it was really tough because I was studying repertoire that was quite sophisticated in my teen years, and could barely reach an octave. Thank goodness I can reach a solid octave, because if you can't reach a solid octave on the piano it's very difficult to approach the keyboard. But assuming you can reach a good solid octave, you should be in good shape and I'm going to show you the secret. Years ago I got to speak with the pianist Ivan Moravec, great pianist. Also a pianist with small hands and we talked a little bit at that time about the challenges of playing with small hands.

Of course, one of the things that you will need to do is develop a great deal of strength, because with a lot of strength you can overcome the limitations of the small hands. But specifically Beethoven's Moonlight Sonata, of course right at the beginning there is a reach that is a little bit beyond what I can reach. I'm going to show you how I play it. Then I'm going to show you how you can play it even if you can't reach a ninth. I can reach a ninth but I still can't reach the passage as it's written, and I'll show you what I mean.

I don't know if you can see right there. Here, if I played it without the pedal you're going to hear how abrupt it is, because I cannot reach. So I take it on the pedal and that is the secret. And I'm going to show you some other pieces that I play that are far beyond my reach where I'm able to get chords by utilizing the pedal and breaking them. So I'm going to show you how you can play this if you can't even reach the ninth. If you can't reach that, I'm going to break it and get it on the pedal.

Now you might have noticed a little break, but it's not a big deal, is it? In fact, I do it all over the place in music. For example, the beginning of the Schumann Carnaval. Now if I play that same passage without the pedal, watch the left hand tenths. I can't reach these tenths at all, but I grab them quickly with a pedal while breaking them very quickly. The secret to breaking them properly is getting the balance out of them that you want.

So right there at the end, if I do that with a pedal, it almost sounds like I'm reaching the...But I'm not, I'm actually going...Do you hear the difference between...and...? So that is a tenth. I can't reach a tenth but I can make it sound convincing. Hopefully it's convincing to you.

So take that in all the places where you can't quite reach. Break it, make sure you get the bottom note, break it from the bottom up, grab that bottom note on the pedal so that you get the entire chord sustaining, even though it's an illusion. You know something? It works great, because if you ever listen to pianists who have enormous hands who don't need to break things, breaking chords is something that many people do just for expressive effect anyway. So it gives you creative license to break chords that you can't reach and don't even think twice about it. Incorporate this into your playing and there's no limit to the repertoire you can play, no matter how big the reaches that are called for.

Thanks for joining me, Robert Estrin here at
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Comments, Questions, Requests:

jack Spiegelman on February 3, 2023 @7:37 pm PST
jack I wanna paint!
1 day ago
HI Robert

I enjoy the videos and have learned a lot. My question concerns the beginning of the 3rd movement in the Moonlight Sonata, bar 3. How would you finger the B# chord —B# D# F# B#? Would you finger it 1 2 3 5 or 1 2 4 5? I have small hands tho I can reach an octave but the F# to B# is a problem.
Robert - host, on February 4, 2023 @9:23 am PST
If you are referring to the right hand arpeggio: B# D# G# B#, it should be 1 2 4 5. If it was B# D# F# B#, 1 2 3 5 would be a good fingering.
jack Spiegelman on February 5, 2023 @8:37 am PST
thanks robert--i meant the B# D# G# B#
Robert Estrin - host, on February 5, 2023 @12:35 pm PST
1 2 4 5 is the best fingering for that.
SMC on September 17, 2021 @8:29 am PST
I just wanted to appreciate this very helpful video with such an enthusiastic presenter. I can see that a lot of effort and intentionality went into its production, and I am glad to have come across it. My reach is barely an octave but I have wanted to be able to access Moonlight for quite a while. This will definitely help me!!!
Stephan Michael Küsel on June 4, 2017 @2:05 pm PST
Hi there, I'm busy trying to tackle the prelude in C# minor by Rachmaninoff op 3 no 2 and I have reached the section where it shows that I should play a C#2 to B3, I have massive and but this seems to be just out of my reach probably by a fourth or so, any tips on how to tackle this mind boggling dilemma would be much appreciated. Thanks
Robert Estrin - host, on June 5, 2017 @4:37 pm PST
The secret to playing large chords with small hands is learning how to break chords quickly and capturing the notes with the pedal. Here is an article and video which demonstrates this process:

Thank you-
Stephan Michael Küsel on June 6, 2017 @12:53 pm PST
Thank you so much for the feedback, I've seen that video before, just didn't cross my mind when I was practicing this piece. Have an awesome day!
Robert - host, on September 17, 2021 @6:39 pm PST
So glad to help!
Kathleen * VSM MEMBER * on December 30, 2015 @2:10 pm PST
Needless to say, anything by Rachmaninoff requires he built a lot of redundancy into his chords so sometimes I just kind of invert where necessary or skip extra notes...I guess he had really big hands.
Milla Gotlib on December 30, 2015 @5:57 am PST
That's what I'm doing for Gershwin's C# min. Prelude, but it's hard.
Pat on December 30, 2015 @4:47 am PST
Thanks for posting this video. I too have a nine note span and I have always broken chords "beyond my reach" on either hand in order to play them.
I always felt a little uneasy playing the music this way but after viewing your video, I feel a lot more relaxed about approaching musical spans that are beyond me.
Thanks again for the video!
joyce on May 31, 2013 @5:07 pm PST
Downton Abbey has a lot of 10ths. This is the piece I am working on now.
Robert - host, on June 1, 2013 @12:02 pm PST
There are certain styles of music with 10ths such as stride piano that I avoid. While breaking large chords are a staple technique for people with small hands, there are practical limits as to what repertoire is ideal for small hands.
Annette * VSM MEMBER * on August 15, 2013 @2:54 pm PST
I have difficulty with chords especially those that are an octave width and include flats or sharps. I have small hands and can barely reach the note past the octave It is easy when the chord is broken up, but when you play the whole chord at once, my fingers hurt.
joyce on May 31, 2013 @1:15 pm PST
When breaking the chords does the base note have to be on the beat or does it matter.
Robert - host, on May 31, 2013 @3:40 pm PST
Broken chords are negotiated differently depending upon context. If you have a particular piece of music you have questions about, please let me know.
Millie * VSM MEMBER * on May 20, 2013 @1:19 pm PST
Lost sound for a couple of days - advised to turn off computer since wires were O.K. -- sound has returned and I could hear your advice.
Fabrizio Ferrari - moderator and CEO, on May 20, 2013 @4:49 pm PST
Great news! Thank you Millie for let us know about this.
Robert - host, on May 20, 2013 @5:17 pm PST
Millie * VSM MEMBER * on May 19, 2013 @5:01 pm PST
Sound is not coming through --
Fabrizio Ferrari - moderator and CEO, on May 20, 2013 @11:55 am PST
I am sorry about that. Are you experiencing this issue with just this video? Please, tell me more, I am willing to help.
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